Tongue canser / Lip cancer

TONGUE CANGER
 

Tongue cancer is a type of oral cancer that forms in the front two-thirds of the tongue. Cancer that forms in the back one third of the tongue is considered a type of head and neck cancer.


Tongue cancer usually develops in the squamous cells, the thin, flat cells that cover the surface of the tongue.


Common tongue cancer symptoms
 

Symptoms of tongue cancer are very similar to symptoms of other types of oral cancer. It can often be mistaken for a cold that won’t go away, or a persistent sore in the mouth. Other tongue cancer symptoms and signs may include:
 

  • Persistent tongue and/or jaw pain

  • A lump or thickening in the inside of the mouth

  • A white or red patch on the gums, tongue, tonsil, or lining of the mouth

  • A sore throat or feeling that something is caught in the throat that does not go away

  • Difficulty swallowing or chewing

  • Difficulty moving the jaw or tongue
     

NOTE: These symptoms may be attributed to a number of conditions other than cancer. It is important to consult with a medical professional for an accurate diagnosis.
 

Advanced treatments for tongue cancer
 

Common tongue cancer treatments include:
 

Surgery: Tumor resection involves an operation to remove the entire tumor from the tongue and possible lymph node dissection depending on the size and images of the neck.
 

Radiation therapy: Your radiation oncologist will administer radiation therapy to cancerous tissues of the tongue, using a high dose with pinpoint accuracy, sparing healthy tissue and shortening procedure times.


Chemotherapy: Often combined with radiation therapy, chemotherapy uses anticancer drugs to destroy cancer cells throughout the body. It may be an option if the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. Different chemotherapy drugs can be combined to attack cancer cells at varying stages of their growth cycles and decrease the chance of drug resistance.
 

Targeted drug therapy: Targeted drug therapy targets cancerous cells to interfere with cell growth on a molecular level. It is often combined with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy as part of a tongue cancer treatment plan.

 

LIP AND ORAL CAVITY CANCER
 

The oral cavity includes the lips, hard palate (the bony front portion of the roof of the mouth), soft palate (the muscular back portion of the roof of the mouth), retromolar trigone (the area behind the wisdom teeth), front two-thirds of the tongue, gingival (gums), buccal mucosa (the inner lining of the lips and cheeks), and floor of the mouth under the tongue.
 

Most lip and oral cavity cancers start in squamous cells, the thin, flat cells that line the lips and oral cavity. These are called squamous cell carcinomasCancer cells may spread into deeper tissue as the cancer grows. Squamous cell carcinoma usually develops in areas of leukoplakia (white patches of cells that do not rub off). Lip and oral cavity cancer is a type of head and neck cancer.
 

Tobacco and alcohol use can affect the risk of lip and oral cavity cancer.

Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. Risk factors for lip and oral cavity cancer include the following:
 

  • Using tobacco products.

  • Heavy alcohol use.

  • Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) over long periods of time.

  • Being male.
     

Signs of lip and oral cavity cancer include a sore or lump on the lips or in the mouth.


These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by lip and oral cavity cancer or by other conditions:
 

  • A sore on the lip or in the mouth that does not heal.

  • A lump or thickening on the lips or gums or in the mouth.

  • A white or red patch on the gums, tongue, or lining of the mouth.

  • Bleeding, pain, or numbness in the lip or mouth.

  • Change in voice.

  • Loose teeth or dentures that no longer fit well.

  • Trouble chewing or swallowing or moving the tongue or jaw.

  • Swelling of jaw.

  • Sore throat or feeling that something is caught in the throat.


Lip and oral cavity cancer may not have any symptoms and is sometimes found during a regular dental exam.


Treatment
 

Surgery

Surgery is a common treatment for all stages of lip and oral cavity cancer. Surgery may include the following:
 

  • Wide local excision: Removal of the cancer and some of the healthy tissue around it. If cancer has spread into bone, surgery may include removal of the involved bone tissue.

  • Neck dissection: Removal of lymph nodes and other tissues in the neck. This is done when cancer may have spread from the lip and oral cavity.

  • Plastic surgery: An operation that restores or improves the appearance of parts of the body. 
     

Even if the doctor removes all the cancer that can be seen at the time of the surgery, some patients may be given chemotherapy or radiation therapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left.